Estate Planning for Muslims in Singapore Made Easy

Estate Planning for Muslims in Singapore Made Easy 150 150


The Wassiyah (Islamic Will) together with Estate planning for Muslims are not widely practiced. The common remarks made are:-

“The Quran already specifies my asset distribution through Fara’id.”


“No need to write a Will. There is Fara’id.”

Muslims are encouraged to make an Islamic Will.

“It is prescribed, when death approaches any of you, if he leave any goods, that he make a bequest to parents and next-of-kin, according to reasonable usage; this is due from those who fear Allah. If anyone changes the bequest after hearing it, the guilt shall be on those who make the change, for Allah hears and knows (all things). But if anyone fears partially or wrongdoing on the part of the testator, and make peace between (parties concerned), there is no wrong in him; for Allah is Oft-Forgiving. Most Merciful.”

Al-Baqarah (2:180-182)

The first remark is true that upon application the Syariah Court will issue the Inheritance Certificate known as “Sijil Warisan” upon the death of a Muslim in Singapore. The Fara’id distribution of shares is reflected on the Inheritance Certificate for the distribution of the Deceased’s assets.

Fara’id is set out in the Al-Quran in the fourth chapter of An-Nisa (Women) verses 7, 11 & 12. and in the Hadith of Sahih Muslim in the 11th book, Kitab Al-Fara’id.

Application of Fara’id and other Syariah Laws

Mr. Ahmad, a Muslim convert was divorced from a previous marriage 2 years ago with a 10 year old son. He converted a year ago and remarried shortly thereafter. From this marriage, he has a daughter whilst responsibly providing for his son from the previous marriage. Mr. Ahmad hopes to send his son to the university in the future. He wishes to provide for his son in the event of his death.

The distribution upon his death of his estate is distributed under Fara’id:

The assets of Mr Ahmad upon his death shall be divided into 8 shares as follows:

1. Wife will get 1/8

2. Daughter will get 4/8

3. Baitulmal will get 3/8

*Baitulmal is the institution that acts as a trustee for the Muslims. It looks after assets from which members of the Muslim public could benefit.

Mr. Ahmad’s non-Muslim son will not be able to inherit as his beneficiary unless an Islamic Will is made to provide up to 1/3 his assets. As a Muslim convert, his whole family prior to his conversion is excluded as legal beneficiaries under the Syariah Law. This is specifically mentioned in Kitab Al-Fara’id.

Book 011, Number 3928(first verse):

Usama b. Zaid reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: A Muslim is not entitled to inherit from a non-Muslim, and a non-Muslim is not entitled to inherit from a Muslim.

3/8 of Mr. Ahmad’s estate ordinarily will go to Baitulmal.

In Singapore the Shafie School of Jurisprudence allows a non-Muslim to receive up to 1/3 of a Muslim’s estate upon death as part of the Wassiyah (Muslim Will).

It is prudent for every Muslim family to make an Islamic Will upon planning their Estate/Legacy.

Some of the other vehicles for distribution of a Muslim’s wealth in Singapore are:-

Hibah – A gift during one’s lifetime.

Harta Sepencarian (Matrimonial Asset Share) – By customary law it is a claim on the deceased estate by the spouse for up to 50% of deceased total assets.

Islamic Trust – Personal and/or business assets can be held in Islamic Trust to benefit specific beneficiaries

Wassiyah (Islamic Will) -The appointment of the Executor to the Estate assist to avoid disputes amongst family members and expedite the smooth Probate process.

With this knowledge available, it will only be an issue of looking for the right Estate Planner with the appropriate expertise in this area of work to help a Muslim plan his estate.

Reza Kamarudin has been in the financial advisory business since 2007. He is passionate about Estate Planning because of the value it brings to the family unit and how Estate Planning upholds the love and dignity of a family.


Source by Reza Kamarudin

The Islamic Economic System

The Islamic Economic System 150 150


Interest-free Islamic economic system is partially followed and partially not followed in Muslim countries around the world. The only country, which has followed this system completely in every minute detail is Malaysia. So the application methods in this post are mostly those implemented in Malaysia following the Interest-free Islamic Economic system.

The main feature of the Islamic economic system is that it is Interest-Free. As the Qur’an says in Sura al-Baqara Chapter 2 Verses 278 & 279, “O ye who believe! fear Allah and give up what remains of your demand for usury if ye are indeed believers. If ye do it not take notice of war from Allah and his Apostle: but if ye turn back ye shall have your capital sums; do not deal unjustly and ye shall not be dealt with unjustly.”

Qur’an condemn all evil deeds, but never has the Qur’an warned of a war against God Almighty and His Messenger except in the case of taking Interest and Usury.

There are several evils of the interest based economy, the reason why Islam has prohibited it.

For example, if a person takes a loan from a bank and says the cost price of a certain article is 10 dollars and he wants to a profit of one dollar. So the selling price would include the 10 dollars cost price one dollar profit and one dollar interest and the selling price would be 12 dollars. The selling price would go up because of interest and when the selling price goes up the demand comes down and when the demand comes down the supply comes down and as supply comes down production comes down causing labour problem and unemployment.

There is Social Injustice.

For example, if a person takes a loan from the bank and no matter if he earns a profit or goes in loss he has to pay that fixed amount of interest. Even if some natural calamity befalls his family, such as flooding or earthquake, the person still has to pay the loan with the interest and a delay would only increase the amount of interest. It is social injustice.

There is no social consideration.

Suppose, if two businessmen come to ask for a loan from a modern bank and one businessman wants to start a social or hospital while the other businessman wants to start an alcohol factory or a gambling den. But natural the businessman, who wants to start an alcohol factory or a gambling den would have better returns and the loan given to him would be more secure and he would give a higher rate of interest as compared to the business, who wants to open a school or hospital. Modern banks are only interested in getting better and higher returns. That’s why they finance gambling dens rather than schools or hospitals. That is why in the 80s thousands of gambling dens were financed by modern banks worldwide. For name sake only a few social projects are financed by modern banks and the majority of their loans are based on better interest.

Modern banks encourage people to store money and keep the money idle for small fixed return on it every year. In the end, power is concentrated in a few hands, the bankers.

In the same way there are several benefits of Islamic banking.

As there is no interest involved, there is profit and loss sharing. So if a person wants to sell his goods, it would only have the cost price and profit in the selling price and instead of 12 dollars, his selling price would be only 11 dollars. If the selling price comes down, the demand increases and if the demand increases the supply increases and as supply increases the production increases resulting in more labour for the people and higher employment. As a result encourages people to work and earn their living.

There is Social Justice in Islamic banking.

If a business takes a loan and goes in loss, the loss is shared by the bank and if he earns a profit, the profit is shared by the bank. If in case any natural calamities befalls him, the Islamic bank gives him more time to repay, unlike the modern bank, where the more time you take to pay the more interest you would have to pay. Many a times if the Islamic bank finds the situation very bad, they even let go off that loan.

There is Social Consideration in Islamic banking.

Islamic bank can not give a loan to any businessman, who is doing any activity, which is causing harm to the society. For example, if a businessman wants to start an alcohol factory and approaches an Islamic bank for a loan, the Islamic bank will not lend him a single penny, not even if he promises to give 100% profit to the Islamic bank. In Islamic banking there is social consideration and they encourage projects beneficial for the society, such as building schools, hospitals and nurseries. In short, the Islamic bank encourages the society to improve.

In the Islamic bank, you are not encouraged to keep your money idle. You are encouraged to invest your money and be a partner in the business and in the end, power is not concentrated in the hands of a few individuals. Because in the Islamic banking the profit and loss are shared by the business, the banker as well as the depositor. The power is equally shared among all the people.

The great philosopher, Aristotle has beautifully defined Interest as “An earning based on the use of money and not on labour, and all such earnings(interests) are against nature.”

Lets quickly analyze the objectives of the Islamic economic order before we analyze the theory and practical application of the Islamic economic system.

The Objectives of the Islamic Economic Order

1- Economic well-being

Islam encourages a person to enjoy the bounties of God Almighty, to work for his living and refrain from begging.

2- Universal Brotherhood and Justice

Qur’an says in Sura al-Hujurat Chapter 49 Verse 13, “O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female and made you into nations and tribes that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise each other). Verily the most honored of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you.”

From this we come to know the criteria that the criteria of judgement in the sight of God is not wealth, not sex, not color, not Caste, but it is “Taqwa” God consciousness, piety and righteousness.

Qur’an says in Sura an-Nisa Chapter 4 Verse 135, “O ye who believe! stand out firmly for justice as witnesses to Allah even as against yourselves or your parents or your kin and whether it be (against) rich or poor: for Allah can best protects all.”

According to this we have to stand for truth and justice be it against anybody even against our own selves and sacrifice your own interests.

3- Equitable Distribution of Wealth

Islam is against the philosophy that the wealth should be concentrated in a few hands. The difference between the rich and the poor should be reduced. Otherwise they would become enemies unto each other. For this, Islam has devised a system of “Zakat” that every Muslim, who has excess wealth exceeding the amount equal to or more than 85 grams of Gold. This amount is spent on the poor, orphans, needy and so on. If every individual in the world practices this system of “Zakat”, not a single person in the whole world would die of hunger. Islam teaches to find lawful employment for the unemployed and to pay him a good remuneration.

According to Islam if a person dies his wealth should be distributed among his heirs according to the guidelines laid down in Qur’an and Ahadith and it should not go to just one or two individuals in the society as it is done today.

4- Individual Freedom within the Context of Social Well-fare

According to Islam man is born free and nobody not even the state can abrogate his freedom nor subject his life to strict regimentation. Every individual is free as long as he does not harm the society because in Islam the larger welfare of the society takes precedence over the individual freedom.

Working and labour as well as the benefit in business are both important principles of Islam, but working and labour take precedence over the benefit in business. If you are doing business, a big loss can not be inflicted to relieve a small loss, nor can a big profit can be sacrificed for a small profit. In short, Islam believes in individual within the context of social welfare.

There are mainly four factors involved in production;

1- Land

In both the Modern and Islamic theories, you pay rent on the land.

2- Labor

You pay wages on the labour in both the Modern and Islamic theories.

3- Capital

In the Modern theory, you pay Interest on capital, while in the Islamic theory there is profit and loss sharing.

4- Organization

In the fourth factor of production, Organization, there is profit and loss sharing in both theories.

So the major difference in the four factors of production is the third factor of Capital. The Modern Theory says that a fixed interest should be charged on the capital, while the Islamic theory says that there is profit and loss sharing on capital. Because Islamic theory does not differentiate between the third factor Capital and the fourth factor Organization because the money lent by the bank does not belong to the bank itself, it belongs to the depositor. The depositors are the part of Organization and the money deposited in the bank (the capital) should be included in the Organization. In the Islamic theory Capital and Organization are clove together and there is profit and loss sharing on the capital.

When you have to do business, there are naturally two types of units. One is the surplus unit, who have excess of wealth, but do not know how to spend it. Second is the deficit unit, the people who do not have money, but have good ideas for business. The best examples of a surplus and deficit unit in the Islamic history is Lady Khadijah (may Allah be pleased with her) had excess of wealth, but lacked avenues to spend in and being a female she couldn’t travel abroad too much to deal in business transactions. The deficit unit, in terms of wealth, was Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him). He had good ideas and access to business avenues, but did not have wealth. So Lady Khadijah (may Allah be pleased with her) gave wealth, which Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him) invested in business avenues on her behalf and the profit was shared on a fixed pre-determined ration.

The System of Islamic Banking and Modern Banking

Lets analyze the options open for individual depositors to deposit their money in an Islamic bank.

Current Account

The money you deposit in an Islamic bank is utilized with your permission, but if the bank goes in loss, the loss is not shared by the depositor. If the bank goes in profit, neither is the profit shared by the depositor. The depositor is interested in only the safety of his money, not profit. The Islamic banks gives you a check book and a slip book with the functions as that of a modern bank.

Savings Account

Even here the depositor is mainly interested in the safety of his money. As the bank gets a profit from this money, the bank can gift a portion of that profit to the depositor, if the bank wants, but the depositor can not demand a fixed portion.

In Islamic banking, if a bank goes bankrupt then the depositors get their money first and then, the creditors. While in Modern Banking creditors get their money first and majority of the depositors lose their money. So even if you want your money safe, the Islamic banks are preferable and safer than Modern banks.

Investment Accounts

They are similar to the Fixed Accounts of Modern banks and are further divided into several types

Mudariba (Profit & Loss Sharing)

The depositor deposits a fixed amount of money in the bank for a fixed period of time, which maybe a multiple of three or a multiple of four. Here the surplus unit is the depositor and the deficit unit is the bank. The bank uses this money to do business with the businessmen and whatever profit the Islamic bank makes, it is divided on a pre-determined ratio, which can be negotiated. In the Islamic Banking of Malaysia, the ratio is 7 part to 3 part, meaning 70% goes to the depositor and 30% is kept by the bank. So there is sharing of profit, the greater the profit the greater the share of each.

Suppose, if there is a loss of a hundred dollars, then hundred would be deducted from the depositor’s money. So theoretically only the depositor bears the loss. Practically analyzing even the Islamic bank is going in loss because they are paying money for the rent, administration and salary, but the loss ratio of the bank is less than that of the depositor, as even the profit of the bank is less than that of the depositor.

Project Financing in the Mudariba System

If a businessman approaches an Islamic bank with a project idea and asks for a loan for a fixed period, the Islamic bank analyzes the project, then the businessman and the Islamic bank negotiate the profit ratio. In Modern banking interest is negotiated, in Islamic banking profit ratio is negotiated.

Suppose, the businessman takes a loan of $5000 from an Islamic bank for six months and the pre-determined profit ratio is 60% to the bank and 40% to the businessman. If the businessman is working for his business, even his salary would be included in that $5000 and suppose the salary of the businessman is $200 per month.

Suppose, if the businessman earns a profit of $5000, the business would get (his 40%) $2000 from the profit and the businessman would get paid $200 salary per month from the $5000 loan, amounting $1200 for 6 months. So the businessman gets his profit as well as the salary for his labour, if he is working for his business.

But in case of loss, the bank bears the complete loss and in turn passes the loss to the depositors. But technically even the business also goes in loss because he is only paid for labour, not for his thinking and ideas.

In Mudariba System, the bank can not interfere in the management of the business. The business can not tell the businessman to build a 12 story building instead of a 10 story building. The bank can not tell the business to produce a certain article instead of another article. The bank can not interfere in the administration of the business.

Mushariqa System (Partnership)

In Mushariqa system or Partnership the Islamic bank can interfere in the management of the business. The bank can tell the business to build a 12 story building rather than a 10 story building. The bank can tell the businessman to make a certain product instead of another product. In Mushariqa system the businessman has part of the capital and the other part he takes from the bank. The profit is shared on a pre-determined ratio. Suppose, if the businessman and bank give 50-50% capital, they would get 50-50% profit. But in case of loss, loss is shared on pre-determined ration and the Islamic bank bears more loss. The Islamic bank may have to bear 60% loss, while the businessman would only bear 40% loss.

Mudhaba System

Suppose, you want to purchase a particular machinery from abroad costing $10000, in the Modern Bank you open a LC (Letter of Credit) or a TR (Trust Receipt/Sales Slip) and you deposit the money in the Modern bank and the Modern bank charges you a fixed amount of interest on the time it takes for the transaction. If you deposit the money in an Islamic bank and ask the bank to buy the machinery on your behalf, the Islamic bank would charge you a service charge/commission.

If you do not have money to buy the machinery, you can combine Mudhaba System with Mudariba System or if you have the money you can combine the Mudhaba System with the Mushariqa System and share the profit on selling that machinery with the bank on a pre-determined ratio.

Ijara (Leasing or Higher Purchasing)

Suppose, you don’t to buy a car, you want to rent it. The Islamic bank charges you a certain profit and rents you the car. The price of the car and the profit are divided by the life span of that car to calculate the per month rent. The Islamic bank provides you Ijara ending with sale and also buying back facility. If you don’t the car, the Islamic bank buys back the car, a facility which Modern banks do not provide.

Interest-free Loan

It is the loan the Islamic bank gives to the poor to do business without charging any Interest at all. There is nothing like Interest-free loan in Modern banking. In the Islamic system of banking in Malaysia 10% of profits are kept separately/ reserved for Interest-free loan for the poor. In Islamic terminology it is called “Karze Hasana” meaning “the good loan”.


Source by Liaqat Qazi

What You Do Not Know About Masjid Jamek

What You Do Not Know About Masjid Jamek 150 150


Jamek, or Jumaat means Friday in the Malay language. It is significant because prayers are held every Friday afternoon. Prayers on Friday afternoons are as important to Muslims as Saturdays are to Jews, and Sundays are to Christians. Masjid, as you may have guessed, means mosque.

There is a tourist counter on the left as soon as one enters the mosque compound. Make sure you are dressed well. For women, you are required to wear a robe, which you can get from the tourist centre. If you are denied entry, which is quite common late in the day or during prayer times, it’s ok. Just stand at the gate and peep in.

The Sultan of Selangor officially opened Masjid Jamek on the 23rd of December 1909. The Resident of Selangor, or Selangor’s British administrator at that time was HC Belfield. Both they, and other officials witnessed the ceremony that was held outside the Mosque.

The designer was A.B Hubback, a government architect who was intrigued by the Mogul architecture of India. This is the city’s oldest surviving mosque and it is constructed on the site of the first Malay cemetery. Masjid Jamek it is located right at where Klang River and Gombak River meet.

Masjid Jamek was built with inspiration from the Mogul mosques of North India. In fact, there are many similarities between this mosque and the Jama Masjid in Old Delhi if you have been there. The brick walls and the white arched supporting columns, or small pillars are similar. On the corners, you can see the cupolas and the minarets, or towers.

There are three giant domes on top of the prayer hall. The central dome stands at 21.3 metres or 70 feet high and is flanked by two lower domes. Domes in Islamic architecture often signify the vaults between heaven and the sky.

The prayer hall is usually empty and without furniture to allow for as many worshippers as possible in a single prayer session. On a typical Friday afternoon prayer, this place is packed.

The hall opens out onto a ‘sahn’ or courtyard, which has now been covered over to allow for even more space. You can recognize it with its white tent.

There are also two red and white striped minarets. They have small chatris or umbrella-shaped cupolas on top. There are a large number of small chatris at the top of the entrance and at the corners of the mosque.

Speakers are placed in the minarets and they are used broadcast the azan, or the Muslim call to prayer. You might even hear it during this tour.

Until the opening of the National Mosque in 1965, Masjid Jamek served as Kuala Lumpur’s principal mosque.


Source by Teng Ky-Gan

Where’s My Muse?

Where’s My Muse? 150 150


The word muse is related to the Latin word mens and the English mind. Centuries ago a poet had no books to hold his words, so he relied on his memory to tell his stories, which is how these beings were given the collective name Muse. Born in the village of Piera at the foot of the majestic Mount Olympus in Greece, the Muses are the daughters of Zeus, king of the Ancient Greek Gods, and Mnemosyne, a titaness who represented memory. They had a nurse called Eupheme, who looked after them with her own sun, the hunter called Crotus.

In keeping with their inspirational roles sacrifices to the Muses included honey, milk and water. The Muses also had many famous friends amongst the Greek mythological characters. The goddess Athena gave them the winged horse Pegasus, while Apollo was the head of their choir. The Muses appear throughout Greek mythology, guiding and teaching many different characters. The riddle the Sphinx used at Thebes was supplied by the Muses. They taught the tragic nymph Echo how to sing and play music, and are associated with the three Charities.

Here, in alphabetical order, is a brief outline of the nine Muses:


The oldest Muse, she is the muse of Epic Poetry, and was Homer’s inspiration for The Illiayd and The Odyssey. Apollo fathered her sons Orpheus and Linus. She’s usually pictured carrying either a writing tablet, a roll of paper or a book. She wears a golden crown.


The muse of History, she is said to have introduced the Phoenician alphabet to Greece. She carries a parchment scroll or a set of stone tablets. Her name means “make famous”, which probably accounts for her other name: The Proclaimer. A relationship with Pierus, King of Macedonia, produced her son Hyacinth


Considered the most beautiful muse, she is responsible for the rather unusual combination of Love Poetry and Mimicry. She’s usually pictured with a lyre, and had a son called Azan with Arcas, a character who was turned into the constellation Ursa Minor.


Known as the muse of pleasure, she is actually the muse of Music. Later in Greek mythology she was given the title of muse of lyric poetry and depicted holding a flute. Her son Rhesus was fathered by the river Strymon – only in mythology! He died fighting at Troy.


Despite her beautiful voice, she is known as the muse of Tragedy, and is often depicted wearing the actors’ mask of tragedy. She wears a crown of cypress, and holds the actor’s mask of tragedy in one hand and a club or knife in the other.


This is one busy lady! Known as the muse of geometry, agriculture, mime and meditation she is also the muse of Sacred Poetry. Her many responsibilities are perhaps the reason she’s usually depicted with a thoughtful face, dressed in a cloak and wearing a long veil and leaning on a pillar! She brings distinction to writers whose work has won them immortal fame.


Although she’s the muse of Dancing, she usually portrayed seated and holding a lyre. This is the character Olivia Newton John portrayed in the film Xanadu. Her liaison with the river god Achelous supposedly resulted in the birth of the Sirens.


She wears the actor’s mask of comedy – the opposite of the one worn by Melpomene. She is the muse of Comedy and Playful and Idyllic Poetry. She’s often pictured holding a shepherd’s crook, a tribute to her role of a rural goddess. A relationship with Apollo produced the Corybantes, priests loyal to the goddess Cybele.


She uses the position of the stars to foretell the future, which is why she’s the muse of Astrology as well as Astronomy. She wears a cloak covered in stars, and is usually depicted staring thoughtfully at the heavens. She’s patron of those concerned with the heavens and philosophy, and is associated with the Holy Spirit and universal love.

Although synonymous with good thoughts and artistic interpretation, the Muses had an unpleasant side. One myth claims that jealous Hera arranged a singing contest between the Muses and the Sirens, who had bird bodies and beautiful faces. The Muses won, and promptly plucked all the feathers from the Sirens’ bodies and made themselves some rather fine crowns. This seems to negate the suggestion that the Sirens were born of the muse Terpsichor!

The musician Thamyris learned the hard way not to challenge the Muses. So confident was he of his prowess that he arranged a contest with them, with the agreement that he would have his wicked way with them all after he won. Of course he lost, and the Muses took two dreadful prizes from him – his sight and his musical ability. So enamoured were the king and queen of Emathia of the Muses they named their nine daughters for them. The inevitable contest came up, and naturally the Muses won. They promptly punished the losers by turning all nine daughters into birds.

When one considers how many Greek Myths and legends are alive today these nine girls obviously did a good job. So perhaps they’re more important than we originally thought. Sources of encouragement and inspiration throughout the ages… just don’t enter any contests featuring the Muses!


Source by Sarah Todd

Islamic Prayer Times, Salat Time and Prayer Information

Islamic Prayer Times, Salat Time and Prayer Information 150 150


Prayer times refers to times when Muslims perform prayers. The term is primarily used for the five daily prayers plus the Friday prayer. According to Muslim beliefs, the salat times were taught by Allah to Muhammad.

Salat times are standard for Islamic in the world, especially the prayer times. They depend on the condition of the Sun and geography. There are varying opinions regarding the exact salat times, the schools of Muslim thought differing in minor details. all schools agree that any given salat cannot be performed before its stipulated time.

Islamic Daily Five Prayer In the World:

The five daily prayers (Salat) are obligatory and they are performed at times determined essentially by the position of the Sun in the sky. Hence, salat times vary at different locations on the Earth.

1st Prayer – Fajr (Pre Down):

The Fajr Prayer is the 2 rak’at obligatory prayer (‘Subuh’ prayer) of the five daily prayers offered by practising Muslims. Fajr begins at subh saadiq – true dawn or morning twilight when the morning light appears across the full width of the sky and ends at sunrise. The Fajr prayer is mentioned by name in the Qur’an at sura 24 ayah. Inspired by the tafsir of the two hadiths that were transmitted on behalf of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, the worth of the Fajr daily prayer is explained as being God’s most-favoured prayer since others are asleep.

2nd Prayer – Dhuhr (Midday):

Dhuhr is the Prayer after midday(But before the time for the Ase prayer). It has been said that the name Dhuhr was given to this Salat because it falls halfway between two daily prayers, those being Fajr which denotes the beginning of dawn and Isha, the first instant of complete darkness. It is the second of the five daily prayers, Performed daily by practicing Muslims. The Dhuhr prayer (Zuhr Prayer) starts after the sun passes its zenith, and lasts almost 20 min (approx.) before Asr. It’s better to say the salah in between 2 hours after the Azan has been announced from Mosque. Shia (Jafari madhab) differs regarding end of dhuhr time. Per all major Jafari jusrists, end of dhuhr time is about 10 minutes before sunset, the time that belongs exclusively to asr prayer. Dhuhr and asr time overlaps, apart from first 5 minutes of dhuhr, which is exclusively delegated for it. Asr prayer cannot be offered before dhuhr in the dhuhr time.

3rd Prayer – Asr (Afternoon):

The Asr prayer is the afternoon daily prayer recited by practising Muslims. It is the third of the five daily prayers. The Asr daily prayer may be mentioned as the middle prayer in the Qur’an at sura 2 (Al-Baqara), ayat 238, and also the name of a short sura (surat al-Asr). The Asr prayer starts when the shadow of an object is the same length as the object itself plus the shadow length at Dhuhr, and lasts till sunset. Asr can be split into two sections; the preferred time is before the sun starts to turn orange, while the time of necessity is from when the sun turns orange until sunset.

Jafari madhab differs regarding start of asr time. Per all major Jafari jusrists, start of asr time is about 5 minutes after the time of sun passing through zenith, that time belongs exclusively to Dhuhr Salat. Time for dhuhr and asr prayers overlap, but the dhuhr prayer must be offered before asr, except the time about 10 minutes before sunset, which is delegated exclusively to asr. In the case that the mentioned time is reached, asr prayer should be offered first (ada – on time) and dhuhr (kada – make up, late) Salah should be offered after asr.

4th Prayer Maghrib (sunset):

The Maghrib prayer prayed just after sunset, is the fourth of five formal daily prayers (salat) performed by practicing Muslims. The Maghrib prayer begins when the sun sets, and lasts till the red light has left the sky in the west. To be considered valid salat, the formal daily prayers must each be performed within their own prescribed time period. people with a legitimate reason have a longer period during which their prayers will be valid.

5th Prayer Isha’a (night):

The Isha’a salat starts when the red light is gone from the western sky, and lasts until the rise of the “white light” (fajr sadiq) in the east. The preferred time for Isha’a is before midnight, meaning halfway between sunset and sunrise.

There are a few optional prayers that can be recited after the Isha’ Salah, including the Nafilat ul-Layl prayers, as well as the tarawih in Ramadan.


Source by Nadine K Sauriol